AGENDA 2030

Goal 1: No poverty
End poverty in all its forms everywhere.

Poverty is more than the lack of income or resources. People live in poverty if they lack basic services such as healthcare, security, and education. They also experience hunger, social discrimination, and exclusion from decision-making processes. Children make up more than half of those living in extreme poverty.

Achieving Goal 1 is hampered by growing inequality, increasingly fragile statehood, and the impacts of climate change.

Goal 2: Zero hunger

End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.

This would be accomplished by doubling agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers (especially women and indigenous peoples), by ensuring sustainable food production systems, and by progressively improving land and soil quality.

Goal 3: Good health and well-being for people

Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.

Significant strides have been made in increasing life expectancy and reducing some of the common killers associated with child and maternal mortality. Similarly, progress has been made on increasing access to clean water and sanitation and on reducing malaria, tuberculosis, polio, and the spread of HIV/AIDS.

Goal 3 aims to achieve universal health coverage, including access to essential medicines and vaccines. Attention to health and well-being also includes targets related to the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, deaths and injuries from traffic accidents and from hazardous chemicals and air, water, and soil pollution and contamination.

Goal 4: Quality education

Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.

Major progress has been made in access to education, specifically at the primary school level. Still, at least 22 million children in 43 countries will miss out on pre-primary education unless the rate of progress doubles. Access does not always mean quality of education or completion of primary school.

Goal 5: Gender equality

Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.

According to the UN, "gender equality is not only a fundamental human right, but a necessary foundation for a peaceful, prosperous and sustainable world." Equal access to education, health care, decent work, and representation in political and economic decision-making processes will nurture sustainable economies and benefit societies and humanity at large.

Achieving gender equality will require enforceable legislation that promotes empowerment of all women and girls and requires secondary education for all girls. The targets call for an end to gender discrimination and for empowering women and girls through technology.

Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation

Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.

Safe drinking water and hygienic toilets protect people from disease and enable societies to be more productive economically. Attending school and work without disruption is critical to successful education and successful employment. Therefore, toilets in schools and workplaces are specifically mentioned as a target to measure.

Goal 7: Affordable and clean energy

Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.

Access to affordable and reliable energy would involve improving energy efficiency and enhancing international cooperation to facilitate more open access to clean energy technology and more investment in clean energy infrastructure.

Goal 8: Decent work and economic growth

Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.

For the least developed countries, the economic target is to attain at least a 7 percent annual growth in GDP. Achieving higher productivity will require diversification and upgraded technology along with innovation, entrepreneurship, and the growth of small- and medium-sized enterprises.

Goal 9: Industry, innovation, and infrastructure

Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation

Manufacturing is a major source of employment. In 2016, the least developed countries had less "manufacturing value added per capita". The manufacturing of high products contributes 80 percent to total manufacturing output in industrialized economies but barely 10 percent in the least developed countries.

Mobile-cellular signal coverage has improved a great deal. In previously "unconnected" areas of the globe, 85 percent of people now live in covered areas. Planet-wide, 95 percent of the population is covered.

Goal 10: Reducing inequalities

Reduce income inequality within and among countries.

Target is to reduce the cost of exporting goods from least developed countries. "Duty-free treatment" has expanded. The target of 3 percent was established as the cost that international migrant workers would pay to send money home.

Goal 11: Sustainable cities and communities

Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable.

The target 2030 is to ensure access to safe and affordable housing. The indicator named to measure progress toward this target is the proportion of urban population living in slums or informal settlements.

Goal 12: Responsible consumption and production

Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.

The targets include using eco-friendly production methods and reducing the amount of waste. By 2030, national recycling rates should increase, as measured in tons of material recycled. Further, companies should adopt sustainable practices and publish sustainability reports.

Goal 13: Climate action

Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts by regulating emissions and promoting developments in renewable energy.

Tackling climate change will only be possible if the SDGs are met. Economic development and climate change are inextricably linked, particularly around poverty, gender equality, and energy. The UN encourages the public sector to take initiative in this effort to minimize negative impacts on the environment.

The regions most vulnerable to the effects of climate change, the Asia-Pacific region needs more public-private partnerships to successfully implement its sustainable development initiatives.

Goal 14: Life below water

Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.

Oceans cover 71 percent of the Earth's surface. They are essential for making the planet livable. Rainwater, drinking water and climate are all regulated by ocean temperatures and currents. Over 3 billion people depend on marine life for their livelihood.

The oceans contain more than 200,000 identified species, and there might be thousands of species that are yet to be discovered. Oceans are the world's largest sources of protein. Marine pollution has reached shocking levels.

The targets include preventing and reducing marine pollution and acidification, protecting marine and coastal ecosystems, and regulating fishing. The targets also call for an increase in scientific knowledge of the oceans.

Goal 15: Life on land

Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

This goal articulates targets for preserving the biodiversity of forest, desert, and mountain eco-systems, as a percentage of total landmass. Achieving a "land degradation-neutral world" can be reached by restoring degraded forests and land lost to drought and flood. Goal 15 calls for more attention to preventing invasion of introduced species and more protection of endangered species.

Goal 16: Peace, justice and strong institutions

Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.

Reducing violent crime, sex trafficking, forced labor, and child abuse are clear global goals.

SDG 16 targets universal legal identity and birth registration, ensuring the right to a name and nationality, civil rights, recognition before the law, and access to justice and social services.

Goal 17: Partnerships for the goals

Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development.

Increasing international cooperation is seen as vital to achieving each of the 16 previous goals. Goal 17 is included to assure that countries and organizations cooperate instead of competing. Developing multi-stakeholder partnerships to share knowledge, expertise, technology, and financial support is seen as critical to the overall success of the SDGs. Public-private partnerships that involve civil societies are specifically mentioned.